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    Autophagy-regulating lncRNAs can function as pro-survival factors or as pro-death agents in cancer.

    Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are a heterogeneous group of complex disorders that affect different organs of the GI tract, including esophagus, stomach, gallbladder, liver, biliary tract, pancreas, small intestine, colon, rectum, and anus. GI cancers account for approximately 25% of all new cancer diagnoses and nearly 30% of all cancer-related global deaths. Several factors including host-related genetic abnormalities and environmental agents have been associated with the disease development [6]. The complex molecular mechanisms involved in GI oncogenesis and progression are still poorly understood .

    Gene Synthesis Oligo Synthesis  Site-directed Mutagenesis  DNA Cloning
    Autophagy is a widely conserved intracellular degradation process, which plays a critical role in many normal physiological processes, such as energy metabolism, organelle turnover, growth regulation and aging . Dysregulation of autophagy is associated with multiple human diseases including cancer . Several investigations have demonstrated that autophagy plays a dual role in cancer, since it contributes both to tumor suppression (in early stages), as well as to tumor promotion (in later stages). The significance of autophagy in the development and progression of GI cancers has been considered to be a “hot topic” in recent studies .

    Non-coding RNAs describe a diverse group of RNA molecules that cannot be translated into proteins. However, they are still potentially functional RNAs and are involved in many cellular processes. Based on the overall nucleotide length, non-coding RNAs are categorized into two groups: (a) short non-coding RNAs including micro RNAs (miRNAs), short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs); and (b) long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). lncRNAs have been characterized as a category of non-coding RNA sequences with lengths greater than 200 nucleotides [18]. An increasing number of studies have indicated that lncRNAs can operate as both oncogenes or alternatively as tumor suppressors in cancer . In addition, several studies have demonstrated the remarkable relationship between lncRNAs and autophagy . Based on several recent reports, autophagy-regulating lncRNAs can function as pro-survival factors or as pro-death agents in cancer .

    Accumulating evidence has revealed the biological and physiological aspects of how autophagy-regulating lncRNAs contribute to carcinogenesis. The extent of autophagy in various steps of the carcinogenic progression can be strongly influenced by the expression of lncRNAs, especially in the advanced steps leading to metastasis. Different studies have shown that lncRNAs can modulate autophagy by affecting autophagy-related genes (ATGs) and their signaling pathways .!

    Gene Synthesis

    Oligo Synthesis

    Site-directed Mutagenesis

    DNA Cloning